what is programmed

programmed decisions are those that are repeated over time and for which an existing set of rules can be developed to guide the process. establishing the schedule might be complex, but it is still a programmed decision: it is made on a regular basis based on well-understood criteria, so structure can be applied to the process. for example, the retail store manager may not know how busy the store will be the week of a big sale, but might routinely increase staff by 30% every time there is a big sale (because this has been fairly effective in the past). the rules and criteria, and how they relate to outcomes, can be clearly laid out so that a good decision can be reached by the new decision maker. with nonprogrammed decisions, information is more likely to be ambiguous or incomplete, and the decision maker may need to exercise some thoughtful judgment and creative thinking to reach a good solution.




these are also sometimes referred to as nonroutine decisions or as high-involvement decisions because they require greater involvement and thought on the part of the decision maker. the best the manager can do in this situation is to gather as much relevant information as possible and make an educated guess as to whether the new technology will be worthwhile. the decision-making process is illustrated in (figure) and can be broken down into a series of six steps, as follows: while these steps may seem straightforward, individuals often skip steps or spend too little time on some steps. nonprogrammed decisions will generally need to be processed via the reflective system in our brains in order for us to reach a good decision. nonprogrammed decisions require more time to resolve; the decision maker may need to conduct research, collect additional information, gather opinions and ideas from other people, and so on.

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