vitamin d promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal bone mineralization and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany (involuntary contraction of muscles, leading to cramps and spasms). in contrast, the endocrine society stated that, for clinical practice, a serum 25(oh)d concentration of more than 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml) is necessary to maximize the effect of vitamin d on calcium, bone, and muscle metabolism [11,12]. intake recommendations for vitamin d and other nutrients are provided in the dietary reference intakes (dris) developed by expert committees of nasem . animal-based foods typically provide some vitamin d in the form of 25(oh)d in addition to vitamin d3. but despite the importance of the sun for vitamin d synthesis, limiting skin exposure to sunlight and uv radiation from tanning beds is prudent . an analysis of nhanes 2011–2014 data on serum 25(oh)d levels found that most people in the united states aged 1 year and older had sufficient vitamin d intakes according to the fnb thresholds . the u.s. preventive services task force (uspstf) found insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening for vitamin d deficiency in asymptomatic adults . people with dark skin greater amounts of the pigment melanin in the epidermal layer of the skin result in darker skin and reduce the skin’s ability to produce vitamin d from sunlight . in this procedure, part of the upper small intestine, where vitamin d is absorbed, is bypassed, and vitamin d that is mobilized into the bloodstream from fat stores might not raise 25(oh)d to adequate levels over time [66,67]. however, the evidence on the impact of vitamin d and calcium supplements on fractures in community-dwelling individuals is inconsistent.
the results showed no association between 25(oh)d levels or vitamin d dose and the risk of falling in the 184 participants who completed the study. the vitamin d supplements were associated with serum 25(oh)d levels of 54 to 135 nmol/l (21.6 to 54 ng/ml). the vital trial found no association between vitamin d supplementation and the risk of colorectal adenomas or serrated polyps . vitamin d deficiency or insufficiency did not increase the risk of prostate cancer, and higher 25(oh)d concentrations were not associated with a lower risk. in contrast to the observational studies, clinical trials have provided little support for the hypothesis that supplemental vitamin d reduces the risk of cvd or cvd mortality. depression vitamin d is involved in various brain processes, and vitamin d receptors are present on neurons and glia in areas of the brain thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression . observational studies suggest that adequate vitamin d levels might reduce the risk of contracting ms and, once ms is present, decrease the risk of relapse and slow the disease’s progression . in addition, studies have not consistently shown that vitamin d supplementation tempers the signs and symptoms of active ms or reduces rates of relapse. studies have also assessed the value of vitamin d supplementation for managing diabetes, and they have found that the vitamin offers limited benefits. orlistat the weight-loss drug orlistat (xenical® and alli®), together with a reduced-fat diet, can reduce the absorption of vitamin d from food and supplements, leading to lower 25(oh)d levels [163-166]. the combination of these diuretics with vitamin d supplements (which increase intestinal calcium absorption) might lead to hypercalcemia, especially among older adults and individuals with compromised renal function or hyperparathyroidism [166,174,175].
check the nutrition facts label for the amount of vitamin d in a food or beverage. the two forms of vitamin d in supplements are d2 (ergocalciferol) and d3 (cholecalciferol). in the united states, most people have adequate blood levels of vitamin d. however, almost one out of four people have vitamin d blood levels that are too low or inadequate for bone and overall health.
some studies show that vitamin d supplements might help reduce blood cholesterol levels and high blood pressure—two of the main risk factors for heart disease. overall, clinical trials find that vitamin d supplements do not reduce the risk of developing heart disease or dying from it, even if you have low blood levels of the vitamin. you cannot get too much vitamin d from sunshine because your skin limits the amount of vitamin d it makes. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health.
vitamin d is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. in humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin du2083 and vitamin du2082. vitamin d (also referred to as “calciferol”) is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in a few foods, added to others, vitamin d is a nutrient you need for good health. it helps your body absorb calcium, one of the main building blocks for strong bones. together it is a fat-soluble vitamin that has long been known to help the body absorb and retain calcium and phosphorus; both are critical for building bone. also,, .
vitamin d is a nutrient your body needs for building and maintaining healthy bones. that’s because your body can only absorb calcium, the primary component the body produces vitamin d in response to sun exposure. vitamin d is important to bone development and immune support. vitamin d helps regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body. these nutrients are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy., .
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